No vital association was discovered between occupation and ethnic origin. When it comes to education among the many women we refer to extra file 1. The participation within the examine was voluntary with informed consent. The questionnaire was nameless with no registration of names, medical data or different personal info.
Note that the women were allowed to offer more than one way of safety. Regarding from whom the women thought they’d get help in the event that they had been discovered to be HIV optimistic, the far most common reply was mother, with fifty one%. Only forty five% thought that they would get assist from healthcare personnel, and even fewer, 21%, stated they’d get help from their fathers, partners 33% or associates 23%. A comparability between Kazakh and Russian women showed that extra Russian women anticipated to get assist from mothers and companions, while Kazakh women more typically mentioned friends and healthcare personnel.
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Nineteen % (30/160) wrote intravenous drug use/needle sharing and three% (5/one hundred sixty) wrote they did not know. Russian women considerably extra usually attended Special College (sixty six%; 95% CI 51–eighty%) compared to 35% (95% CI 28–41%) for Kazakh women.
Considering this the excessive price of ladies answering no to have an HIV check may not indicate unwillingness, as an alternative it might indicate the fact that they have already got been tested. When it involves informing those near themselves a majority of the ladies said they would inform the healthcare personnel in the event that they were found to be HIV constructive. This indicates that lots of the women have put their confidence within the well being care system, which will increase the system’s likelihood to stop additional spread of HIV and to give the infected women remedy. Only one out of three women felt assured enough to inform and get help from their husband, which is a problem, since informing one’s partner is a vital issue in the prevention of additional spread. This is optimistic as a result of these two routes are crucial routes for the final population to concentrate on.
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To the open question concerning the main means HIV/AIDS is unfold from one person to a different many ladies gave several solutions, the most common being «sexual contact» given by 76% (122/a hundred and sixty). The second commonest answer was blood transfusion, with 30% (forty eight/one hundred sixty).
There was also a tendency for the Russian women to say extra typically that they would inform their moms, however the difference was inside the margins of error. In common women, with larger levels of education were higher than women with low education at accurately excluding and together with transmission routes of HIV/AIDS. The differences were important for «shaking arms/hugging/dwelling in the same home», «changing garments with someone who has HIV/AIDS», «sexual intercourses with condom», and «sharing needles while injecting medication».
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Kazakh women had a tendency to extra typically attend University/Institute/Academy. Of the 226 women, seventy six.2% (a hundred and seventy/223) had been Kazakh, 18.four% (41/223) Russian, 2.2% (5/223) Tatar, 1.eight% (four/223) German and 1.3% (3/223) others. The three women who didn’t reply the question about their ethnicity have been excluded after kazakh girl we referred our outcomes to ethnicity. Of the Kazakh women who answered the query about faith, a hundred% were Muslim. Among the Russian women who answered the question about religion, ninety three% have been Christian Orthodox. Of the entire group seventy nine.7% (173/217) had been Muslim, 18.9% (forty one/217) Christian Orthodox and 1.4% (3/217) other.
In addition illiteracy is uncommon in Kazakhstan, which facilitate for the women to take share of the given info. Other answers were «avoiding informal sexual contacts» and «use of clean syringes». When the ladies have been requested if they had adequate info to guard themselves against HIV/AIDS, forty two% (89/211) answered no and nearly the identical quantity, forty two% (88/211) answered yes. Russian women answered to a significantly greater diploma sixty three% (ninety five% CI 49–seventy eight) that that they had enough information in comparison with Kazakh women 36% (95% CI 28–43). About two thirds, sixty eight% (141/206), of the women stated that women and men have equal duty to make sure a condom is used throughout sexual intercourses. Of our responders sixty five% (134/206) answered that there are methods to guard oneself against sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS. Of the ladies who answered sure to this query, 55% (seventy four/134) specified ways to guard oneself.
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It is reassuring to see that only ten women out of 226 didn’t know there was a disease referred to as HIV or AIDS. This corresponds to the findings in a number of other research regarding consciousness about HIV/AIDS amongst pregnant women from India , China , Papua New Guinea and Ghana . Compared with the women in Aksu, northwest China, the women in Semey had extra typically heard of about HIV/AIDS. It is positive that the media are a significant source of data, exactly as in the Aksu examine and the Papua New Guinea examine . That a majority of the women are aware of a disease known as HIV/AIDS and that media are a major source of knowledge shows that the HIV epidemic is mentioned in public and that the media are an environment friendly means of spreading information.
Of the entire group 41% (88/215) of the ladies needed to be tested for HIV/AIDS. Fifty-9 % (124/211) of the ladies said they’d inform the healthcare personnel in the event that they have been found to be HIV constructive, 35% (74/211) that they might inform their moms and 32% (sixty eight/211) their partners.
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In our manuscript it is not potential to establish individual patients. We have a written choice from the Head of the Ethical Committee at Semey, Kazakhstan that no additional moral evaluation is required. With the anonymous design and no registration of private delicate information, the examine does not must be reviewed by the Swedish Ethical Committee based on their rules. No info was collected from the women who refused to participate. The women have been knowledgeable that their participation and the completion of the questionnaire had been totally voluntarily and that they have been free not to answer the questions they found too personal. The info given can be saved confidentially and no names or identifying info would appear in publications. In addition to the questionnaires, we interviewed 21 of the study individuals.